A heat pump transfers heat from one source to another using the refrigeration process. Electricity is used to run the compressor to drive the process. The efficiency is more than 100% and is called the coefficient of performance (CoP). It can typically be 250% to 350% for an air source heat pump.
The smaller the difference in temperature the less work needed and the higher the efficiency. Heat pumps, therefore, work most efficiently at low heating flow temperatures and higher outdoor temperatures.
Energy is transferred from the ambient air using the refrigeration cycle which makes use of the phase change properties of the refrigerant. Energy is captured outside as the refrigerant evaporates into a gas and is then released inside when the gas condenses to liquid.
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